Difficult Cotton Bottomwear Shades

Dave Ablard, Global Head – Marketing for Jay Chemical Industries Ltd highlights some common technical problems.  Can you suggest any solutions?

Have you found it difficult to find reactive dyestuffs for cold pad-batch and pad-dry-chemical pad-steam processes which will give acceptable results on 100% cotton peach fabric?

You are not alone, because many dyehouses experience one or more of the following problems in difficult medium to heavy tertiary bottomwear shades:-

  1. Poor lab to bulk and batch to batch shade consistency.
    Cotton Bottomwear (lab-bulk)
  2. Shade and strength variations along the length of the fabric (commonly known as tailing).
  3. Shade and strength variations across the width of the fabric (commonly known as side-center-side variation, SCS).
  4. Back to face shade variation caused by differential capillary action of one of the dyestuffs in the recipe on the emerised or peached side of the fabric.
  5. Washing-off difficulties, particularly in heavy shades, which lead to problems achieving their customer’s wet fastness specification.
  6. Medium tertiary dyeing recipes, which will meet the light fastness specification (such as ISO B02), are not cost-effective.
  7. Their existing dyestuffs fail the latest retailer fastness requirements such as repeated domestic washing (e.g. M&S C10A), perborate wet fading (e.g M&S C9A), or perspiration lightfastness (e.g ISO B07).
  8. Their existing yellow dyestuff causes photochromism.
  9. Their existing dyestuffs do not provide a consistent shade in all their customer’s illuminants (commonly known as “a lack of colour constancy” or “metamerism”, although strictly speaking this latter term is inaccurate in this situation).

The big question is how to solve each one of these problems?

Are these problems related to fabric construction, fabric preparation, shade, dyeing process, dyeing machinery, dyestuff selection, or something else?

Can anyone help to solve at least some of these problems?  We’d welcome your comments and suggestions.

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